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منگل، 25 جنوری، 2011

Inevitable Sino-USA Meditation over Kashmir Conflict

USA seem to be having doubles standard, since on one side she is asking China to assist in dragging her out from exiating economic crunch whereas on the other side taping India against China. Thus, Beijing very rightly says that its president`s recently concluded state visit to the United States was " fruitful" but the two countries need to work on trust so that sensitive issues do not create misgivings.
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By Zaheerul Hassan

Kashmir valley is known as heaven on earth because of its scenic beauty, Chinar, Deodar and Alpine trees, grassy slopes full of flowers, fresh water lakes, water falls, crystal blue sky and snow covered high peaks and brave inhabitants of the valley. Unfortunately this valley is passing through a horrible era of her history since 1947. The disputed state is located north of India. It consists of area of 139,000 Sq Km (53,700 Sq Mi) with population of OVER 10 million (2001). The state is bounded to the west by Pakistan. The 1971-72 Line-of-Control separates it from Azad Kashmir and in the East by Ladakh, Tibet and Aksian China. The state is drained by numerous rivers which include Indus, Zanskar, Suru, Nubra Shyok, Jhelum, and Chinab.

The tranquility of Kashmir converted into aggression when Hari Singh, Maharaja of Jammu & Kashmir against the wishes of locals announced its accession with India in October 1947.  In retaliation Kashmiri stood up and started struggle against Indian aggression. However, to crush the moment, occupied Indian security forces murdered thousand of innocent people; raped hundred of women and young girls.  The occupied forces also abducted and killed thousand of young and old freedom fighters. The tension between two neighbours provoked further and made them dagger drawn each other.

Pakistan and India four times went to war against each other and out of which three were due to Kashmir issue. The population of Kashmir with the help of Pakistani comrades tried to liberate their motherland form Indian occupied forces. New Delhi started yelling against Pakistan and freedom fighters just to avoid her forces’ defeat in the hands of liberators. Thus, it was India which first time took the Kashmir dispute to the United Nations on 1 January 1948. UNO helped in cease firing between two neighbours on 1 January 1949. Because of mutual consent of two countries UN Security Council (UNSC) and UN Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP) passed number of resolutions. Anyhow, The UNSC Resolution of 21 April 1948--one of the principle UN resolutions on Kashmir stated that “both India and Pakistan desire that the question of the accession of Jammu and Kashmir to India or Pakistan should be decided through the democratic method of a free and impartial plebiscite”. On this issue UNSC Resolutions of 3 August 1948 and 5 January 1949 reinforced UNSC resolutions, which were also been acknowledged by India and Pakistan. But India never implemented over UNSC resolutions and always tried to put the issue in the cold storage.

In 1962, India took up arms against China. She used American influence to restrict Pakistan from launching any offensive to unshackle Kashmir. Pakistan and India went to war over Kashmir and East Pakistan issues in 1965 and 71 respectively. As result of East Pakistan debacle, Bangladesh appeared on the world map due to Indian intrigues against Pakistan. However, Kashmir conflict again remained the basic bone of contention and also again been acknowledged as disputed territory by two countries in Simla Agreement of July 2, 1972.

Interestingly, the super power (US) that gave assurance of resolution of Issue in 1962 but it backed out from his promise just after the culmination of Indo-Sino War. Moreover after disintegration of Great Soviet Union, she totally disengaged herself from under discussion core issue of South Asia. The simple reason could be that annoying India is not affordable and part of her strategy. Therefore, USA never openly supported Pakistan’s stance over Kashmir. In this context, Obama too after wining the election negated his own statement of acting as mediator over Kashmir Issue between India and Pakistan. In fact US has special agenda of containing China with the help of India. She also knows that the natural resources and its connectivity with Pakistan, India and China made its location very sensitive and strategically important for the regional and global players too.

US probably is interested to promote the idea of independent Kashmir or under the control of India. The purpose behind her notion could be accomplishing her strategic interest of containing china. Moreover her revealed interest is only corresponding to New Delhi’s aim of superseding China in Asia. US is providing tacit support in piling up of arms heaps. According to AFP news of January 17, 2011, the World Bank announced $1.72 billion in loans to India, including $1.5 billion to build 24,000 kilometers (14,880 miles) of roads across seven states of the country. Development of infrastructure is directly related to the hegemonic design of India since where it would be supportive in boasting her economy but at the same time it would also be helpful in offensive launching against China and Pakistan. There are news that India will use this loan in developing defence related infrastructures in the area connected to Kashmir, Bangladesh and Himachal Pradesh state. China. Bangladesh and Pakistani authorities should approach World Bank that India should be asked not to use loan in improving infrastructure in the disputed territories.

USA seem to be having doubles standard, since on one side she is asking China to assist in dragging her out from existing economic crunch whereas on the other side taping India against China. Thus, Beijing very rightly says that its president's recently concluded state visit to the United States was "fruitful" but the two countries need to work on trust so that sensitive issues do not create misgivings.

It is added here that China is facing direct threat to her border from India. Recently, the ‘discrepancy; of 1,500 km is a clear pointer to Beijing's position, not only on its boundary dispute with India but also on Jammu and Kashmir (J&K). While India holds about 45% of J&K territory and Pakistan controls 35%, China occupies about 20% which includes Aksai Chin. An official briefing by China's Assistant Foreign Minister Hu Zhengyue on the eve of Prime Minister Wen Jiabao's recent visit to India triggered the alarm. He said, "China and India share a 2,000-km-long border that has never been formally demarcated." India has held that Sino Indian border is 3,488 km long. China refused to issue visa to a very high level Indian Defence delegation since one of the top commanders Lt-Gen B S Jaswal was General Officer Commander of Northeran Area. It is notable here that General V K Singh, the Army chief was supposed to lead the delegation. Anyhow New Delhi has canceled defense exchanges with China after Beijing refusal. It is pertinent to mention here that General Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Northern Area Command is responsible for Jammu & Kashmir, a state that China and Pakistan consider it disputed territory. Jammu and Kashmir.  China always favoured Pakistan’s stance over Kashmir and never acknowledged Indian illegal rights over Kashmir valley. She also knows that one of the aims of US is to contain China and in this context India is one of the most favourite allies of America.  She is well aware of the fact that New Delhi always sheltered Dalai Lama’s and supported his stance over Tibet.  The china position is directly connected to Pakistan argument on Kashmir too. She always condemned Indian brutality against Kashmiri innocent people. Her ties with Pakistan are ever lasting and deep routed too. Recently despite Indian hue and cry, China announced the supply of two nuclear plants to Pakistan.

Pakistan being agro based riparian country is facing dilemma of shortage of water because of Indian illegal construction of 172 dams in occupied Kashmir.  Its agriculture is at the stake since head works of the all the rivers flowing in her territory are located in Indian occupied Kashmir. Apart from threat to agriculture sector, Pakistan always considered Kashmir as her integral part because of its geographically connectivity and blood relations with 95% population.  In nut shell Pakistani and Kashmiri nations would keep on struggling for independence of Kashmir under the UN charter.

According to media reports the recent peaceful movement of Kashmir is likely to convert into an arms struggle because of continue Indian defiance policy over implementations of UN Resolution. All political parties of Kashmir strongly condemned the pathetic violation of Human Rights. Recently , the Chairman of All parties Hurriyat Conference (APHC) and the President of Tahreek e Hurriyat (Teh) Jammu & Kashmir, Syed Ali Shah Geelani has urged the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) to initiate a probe into the killings of 17 innocent Kashmiri by Indian armed forces during protest demonstrations, last year.

In short, South Asian peace is directly connected with the burning issue of Kashmir. The acceptable solution to the Kashmiri nation revolves around the UN Resolution passed in 1948 and 1949. But India is reluctant to resolve the conflict bilaterally, which proves that mediation of third party is inevitable between two nuclear states. Both China and US should come head to play the role of mediator   for avoiding future nuclear conflict of in Asia.  Pakistani nation, Muslim Ummah should come out on February 5 to display solidarity with Kashmiri nation and condemn Indian brutality against innocent freedom fighter, children, women and old aged people.
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